Astrology Definitions – C2

Co – Cy

See instead Ca – Cl

Cold planets
Moon, Saturn.
Collection of light
When a planet is in aspect to two other bodies which are not within orbs of each other, a collection of light results through the action of the intermediary planet. It denotes that the affairs represented by the two bodies whose light has been thus collected, will be forwarded by a third person, described by the intermediary planet, providing both bodies receive the intermediary in one of their dignities. Used in Horary Astrology. Other authors confine it to a larger planet aspected by two smaller, with the interpretation that if the smaller do not receive the larger in one of their dignities, the intermediary will feel no interest in the affair, nor will it prosper.
Said of a planet when in extreme closeness to the Sun, the limits variously placed at from 3° to 8°30'. The characteristic effect to which the term applies is probably confined within an arc of 3° and is more pronounced when the planet rises after the Sun. Older authorities, including Milton, have described it as weakening, except in the case of Mars which was said to be intensified. The probabilities are that the effect of the combust condition is to combine the planet's influence more closely with that of the Sun, until it is no longer a physical emotion capable of independent control, but an integral part of that consciousness of Destiny that the Sun imparts. Thus Mercury combust imparts to the mind a capacity for concentration upon what it deems its own destiny, but robs it of its receptivity to distracting or diverting influences. Hence it is no bar to the achievement of its own objectives insofar as the ability to achieve them is within its own powers, but it robs the native of the cooperation of those whom he alienates by his particular species of obtuse deafness to any or all argument that runs counter to his own concepts. Edison and Kant both illustrate this interpretation. Venus combust may take away the strength to achieve, but when in a particularly close conjunction with the Sun it produces the condition sometimes termed nymphomania – described by Bolitho concerning Lola Montez. Mars combust is always the man who fights for what he wants; and so with each planet according to its intrinsic nature.

The distinction is an important one, in that a person with an entirely unaspected Mercury is one who usually develops a complex by way of an escape mechanism, while one whose Mercury is within 5° to 10° of the Sun is seldom afflicted with any manner of mental derangement.

Wilson says "there seems manifest a difference in genius and propensities of natives, according to the distance of their Mercury from the Sun; and that those whose Mercury is combust have little wit or solid judgment, though they will persevere in business and frequently with good success." Also that a good aspect to the Moon, if angular and increasing in light, will in great measure remedy this defect, making one "judicious and penetrating."

It should not be confused with the phrase "under the Sun's beams" which applies to, let us say, the degree of non-combustion, and is perhaps embodied in the doctrine that a planet within the Sun's aura – which extends to 17° on either side – is within orbs of a conjunction therewith. In other words, while the orbs of the planets, with regard to aspects, are variously from 3° to 10° according to the nature of the aspect, the solar orb, by conjunction or opposition, can be as much as 17°.

Erratic members of the Solar system, usually of small mass. Luminous bodies, wandering through space, or circulating around the Sun, and visible only when they approach the Sun. They usually consist of three elements: nucleus, envelope, and tail. The superstitious once considered them to be evil omens. Those pursuing an elongated orbit are periodic and return at fixed intervals. Those with a parabolic or hyperbolic orbit are expected never to return.

The astrological significance of comets has been the subject of much study, but so far no definite conclusions have been reached. Suggestion has been advanced that Donate's comet, which made its first appearance of record in June 1858 and attained its maximum brilliancy on October 9th, was a factor in the nativity of Theodore Roosevelt, born October 27, 1858. It is presumed that comets presage history-making events; but operating through individuals whose birth coincides with their appearance, their effects are so delayed as often to be overlooked. Donati's comet was one of the most beautiful of comets. Its tall was curved. The nucleus had a diameter of 5,600 miles.

"When beggars die there are no comets seen; The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes." – Shakespeare.

The year of F. D. Roosevelt's birth was also marked by the appearance of one of the brightest comets of record, which was visible in broad daylight – even at noon.


The following lists of comets afford a basis for their further study:

Periodic CometsPeriodDistance from Sun*Incl. to EclipticPerihelion Passage
Barnard’s (1884)5.401.28 – 4.895°28′1906.2
Barnard’s (1892)6.311.43 – 5.3831°40′1905.6
Biela’s6.690.88 – 6.2212°22′1866.1
Brooks’s7.101.96 – 5.436°04′1903.9
Brorsen’s5.460.59 – 5.6129°24′1890.2
Cunningham’s     1940.9
D’Arrest’s6.691.33 – 5.7715°43′1897.4
DeVico-E. Swift’s6.401.67 – 5.223°35′1901.1
Donati’s….5000     1858.8
Encke’s3.300.34 – 4.0912°36′1905.1
Faye’s7.391.65 – 5.9410°38′1903.4
Finlay’s6.560.97 – 6.043°03′1900.2
Halley’s76.080.69 -35.22162°13′1910.3
Holmes’s6.872.13 – 5.120°48′1899.3
Olters’s72.651.02 -33.6244°34′1887.8
Pons-Brooks’s71.560.78 -33.774°3′1884.1
Temple’s6.542.09 – 4.9074°3′1884.1
Temple’s5.281.39 – 4.6812°39′1904.8
Temple-L. Swift’s6.681.15 – 5.215°26′1903.1
Tuttle’s13.671.02 -10.4154°29′1899.3
Winnecke’s5.830.92 – 5.5517°1004.1
Wolf’s6.821.59 – 5.6025°15′1905.3


*In terms of Earth's Mean Distance.

In terms of Earth's Mean Distance.
Cunningham's Comet, first observed in 1940, had a tail of an estimated length of 60 million miles, pointing directly upward. It was of a magnitude of 1.7.

Halley's Comet, 1835 and 1910, is the most historic comet. Every appearance has been traced back to 240 B.C.

The head of Holmes's Comet had a diameter in excess of a million miles. It is one of the largest of record.

The great comet of 1843, which seems not to have been given a name, was apparently a Periodic Comet, with an orbit of 400 years. A tail 200 million miles in length, the longest tail of any comet of record, made it a sight of grandeur. Its perihelion distance, 300,000 miles, was extremely short, and carried it through the Sun's corona.

Non-Periodic Comets. Among the records of non-periodic comets are:
Great comet of 1729. – The greatest of record, yet details are lacking. Its perihelion distance, approximately 384 million miles, over four times distance of sun to earth, brought it no closer to Sun than Jupiter's orbit, although it did go around the Sun. Had it come as close as the average comet, its splendor would have transcended that of any other comet.

De Cheseaux's Comet, 1744 – an unusual comet, six tails –
Great Comet of 1811. The largest comet in actual size ever observed, except the 1729 comet of which little is known. The head was 1,125,000 miles in diameter – larger than the Sun. The tail was 100,000,000 miles in length. It was a magnificent sight. Its aphelion-distance was 14 times the distance of Neptune from the Sun. The wine in France was particularly good that season, and for years was famed as "Comet Wine."

Great Comet of 1861. Earth passed through the tail which subtended over 100° of arc. At one time the comet was brighter than any star or planet except Venus at its brightest, and a peculiar glow suffused the entire sky. One of the finest, probably the brightest comet. Could be seen in broad daylight, even at noon.

Morehouse's Comet, 1908, showed the most rapid variations in appearance – the tail changing so much from day to day that sometimes it could not be recognized as the same comet.

Comet 1925a. In perihelion distance it was one of the largest – nearly as far away as Jupiter.

Collision with Earth. On June 30, 1908, occurred in Siberia the greatest meteorite fall in historic times. It was probably the head of a small comet. It had no connection with Morehouse's Comet. Another and larger collision caused Meteor Crater in Arizona, but it was pre-historic-probably 40,000 years ago.

Commanding Signs
Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, and Virgo, because they were deemed more powerful by virtue of their nearness to the zenith. The assumption that these command while the other six obey is hardly warranted, even for this reason – since the Earth is actually at the opposite end of each polarity. Actually they might with more reason be termed the "demanding" signs, with Libra to Pisces termed "commanding" signs, with much the same meaning as that contained in the aphorism that "One does not demand respect: he commands it."
Common Signs
Those of the Mutable Quadruplicity: Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces; said to be flexible but vacillating.
(a) Three or more planets in a birth map, that are joined together by aspects, whereby. any stimulation will result in the combined action of all the planets which enter into the configuration. (b) A similar combination of mutual aspects between transitory planets.
Conjunction, Conjoined to
The occurrence of a direct, or nearly direct, line-up of two planets as from earth. The strongest of the major aspects.

Phraseology to indicate the mutual relation of two planets occupying longitudinal positions separated by less than 7°. The exact limits, and the relative strength at different degrees of separation, constitutes a controversial point. Strictly speaking, the conjunction takes place when both occupy exactly the same degree position; although it begins to be operative when they arrive within orbs. v. Aspect.

Conjunction, Superior and Inferior
The conjunction of an inferior planet, Mercury or Venus, with the Sun is an inferior conjunction when the planet is between the Earth and the Sun; a Superior Conjunction, when the Sun is between the Earth and the planet.
Some 90 subdivisions of the heavens, mostly named according to some outline traced among the principal stars within the area. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the various contiguous constellations. Twelve of these groups lie along the ecliptic, and are thus known as the Zodiac of Constellations. At about the commencement of the Christian era, these constellations coincided with the divisions of the ecliptic based on the point of the Vernal Equinox, where the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator. Since at no time did astrologers attribute the influences which repose in the twelve 30-degree arcs of the Earth's annual revolution around the Sun, to the background of stars against which celestial positions are measured, the name of the constellations were appropriated and attached to the zodiac of signs based upon the points of the Equinoxes and the Solstices.

The symbology of the constellations along the ecliptic is of interest in that it is probable the astrological significances preceded the naming of the constellations, which were named to symbolize the influences ascribed to the different arcs. The constellations of the Zodiac are:

Aries. The ram. It is mentioned by Aratus, in the third century B.C. According to Grecian mythology Nephele, mother of Phrixus and Helle, gave her son a ram with a golden fleece. To escape the evil designs of their stepmother, Hera, Phrixus and Helle mounted the ram and fled. As they reached the sea and attempted to cross, Helle fell into the water and perished – hence, the Hellespont. Arriving in Colchis, Phrixus was received by the King, Aeetes, who sacrificed the ram to Zeus, to whom he dedicated the fleece – later carried away by Jason. Zeus translated the ram into the heavens as a constellation.

Taurus. The Bull. A constellation of great antiquity containing two star-clusters: the Pleiades and the Hyades, which are referred to in the Old Testament. The principal star of the Hyades, Aldebaran, is mentioned by Hesiod and Homer. According to the Greeks it was the bull which carried Europa across the seas to Crete, and which Jupiter raised to the heavens. The Hyades, named Ambrosia, Coronis, Eudora, Pasithoë, Plexaris, Pytho and Tycho – after the seven daughters of Atlas – and Aethra, were also transformed into stars by Jupiter, for bewailing the death of their brother Hyas. The central star of the Pleiades, Alcyone, also Ple‹one and Atlas – are stars of the 3rd magnitude. They were the seven daughters of Atlas and Ple‹one, hence half-sisters of the Hyades. They too were said to have been turned into stars for grieving over the loss of their sisters, and the suffering of their father: but another account tells how the sisters met the great hunter Orion in Boeotia, whose passions were so inflamed at the sight of them that he pursued them through the woods for five years, until Zeus translated the lot of them – the sisters, Orion, and his dogs Sirius and Betelguese – into the sky. As the Pleiades rise in mid-May, they are, as daughters of Atlas, the bringer of the fertilizing spring rains which come out of the west; as they set at the end of October, they are, as the pursued of Orion, the forerunners of the autumn storms. To them, Homer, in his Odyssey (XII. 62) probably alluded as the doves that brought Ambrosia from the west to Zeus. That one of the doves was lost while pursuing the wandering rocks, the Planetae, is a reference to the fact that one of the Pleiades, Merope, is always invisible – from hiding her light for shame at having had intercourse with Sisyphus – a mortal. However, all the Pleïades became ancestresses of heroic or divine families, called by the Romans: Vergiliae (probably from ver – Spring).

Gemini. The twins. The constellation Gemini contains Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri, twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, associated with Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome. The constellation Lupus represents the wolf by whom the twins were suckled in infancy. In other references the twins are identified as Hercules and Apollo, and as Triptolemus and Iasion. With the Arabians — the twins were a pair of peacocks.

Cancer. The crab. It contains a loose cluster of stars, Praesepe, the beehive, visible to the naked eye as a nebulous patch. Aratus mentions it in the third century B.C., and Ptolemy catalogued 13 stars within the area, none brighter than the 3d magnitude. Encyclopaedia Britannica explains the name as possibly due to the fact that at this point the Sun, passing the point of its greatest elongation, apparently retraces its path in a sidelong manner resembling a crab.

Leo. The Lion. The Nemean lion, slain by Hercules, and raised to the heavens in his honor, by Zeus. Regulus, the Lion's Heart, also known as Basilicus, is its brightest star, of a magnitude of 1-23. The Leonids are a meteoric swarm which radiate from the area, appearing in November.

Virgo. The Virgin. According to different fables she was Justitia, daughter of Astraeus and Ancora, who lived before man sinned, and taught him his duty; and at the end of the golden age she returned to her place in the heavens. Hesiod identified her as the daughter of Jupiter and Themis. Others variously identify her as Erigone, daughter of Icarius; and Parthene, daughter of Apollo. The principal star of the constellation is Spica, a star of the first magnitude, with a very faint companion.

Libra. The Balance. It was mentioned by Manetho in the 3d century, B.C. and by Germinus in the 1st Century B.C. It was not mentioned by Aratus, but Ptolemy catalogued 17 stars in the area. It contains the important star Algol, a variable, of a magnitude of from 5 to 6.2, with a period of 2d 7h 51m. Encyclopaedia Britannica finds no explanation for the name beyond the fact that there the days and nights are of equal duration, which would also apply to Aries.

Scorpio. The Scorpion. According to a Greek myth Orion boasted to Diana and Latona that he would kill every animal on the Earth. Whereupon the goddesses sent a scorpion which stung him to death. Jupiter then raised the scorpion to the heavens, but later, at the request of Diana, he also raised Orion. The chief star of the constellation is Antares, a reddish star of the first magnitude which has a green companion of the seventh magnitude.

Sagittarius. The Archer. The Greeks represented this constellation as a centaur in the act of releasing an arrow; they identified him as Crotus, son of Eupheme, the nurse of the Muses. The constellation contains no notably large stars.

Capricorn. The Goat. Literally translated it means a goat with horns. Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe catalogued 28 stars in this area, none of notable size. The ancients sometimes represented it as a goat, at other times only as the forepart of that animal with the tail of a fish. No record is available as to the origin of the term, but Eudoxus mentions it in the fourth century B.C..

Aquarius. The Waterbearer. A constellation mentioned by Aratus in the third century B.C. Ptolemy catalogued 47 stars in the area; Tycho Brahe 41. There appear to be no records that appear to connect the name with any of the stars or configurations within the area. The Encyclopaedia Britannica merely says that perhaps it was because the period when it was tenanted by the Sun was the rainy season.

Pisces. The Fishes. Sometimes represented by the two fishes tied together by their tails. It is mentioned by Eudoxus in the fourth century B.C., and Ptolemy catalogued 38 stars in the area. In Greek mythology Aphrodite and Eros, surprised by Typhon on the banks of the Euphrates, sought safety in the water and were changed into two fishes; but this is said to be an adaptation of an earlier Egyptian tale. The constellation contains no notably large stars.

Listed are all the constellations within 45° on each side of the equator. The month indicated is that in which the constellation is on the meridian at approx. 9 P.M..

(a) Usually applied to an aspect from a transiting or directed planet to a sensitive degree created by a planet at birth. (b) In a general sense it infers the energy discharge which takes place when an aspect becomes operative.
Contra antiscions
These are the same degees of declination held by stars and planets tenanting Signs on opposite sides of the Aries 0º – Libra 0º axis. They are exactly opposite the antiscion points. For example, the antiscion of 5º Aries is at 25º Virgo, while the contra-antiscion of 5º Aries is at 25º Pisces. To find them recourse may be had to Tables of Declination. v. Parallels.
Converse Directions
Those computed opposite to the order of the Signs. Some authorities appear to question the validity of Converse Directions. It is true that in a birth Figure aspects are deemed to be formed only by a faster moving planet to a slower moving; but this does not apply to Directions in which the directed planet aspects all natal planets. If there is any validity in either Directions or Progressions the probability is that they are based upon a moving Ascendant which carries with it the entire Figure. In that event it would make no difference which one of two planets is directed to the other; for whether the one moves forward or the other moves backward, a contact between these two planets will result in either case, and which one is deemed to be the birth planet and which the directed planet is of relatively minor consequence. Since transits are the actual rather than theoretical or symbolic motions of the body of the planets in the order of the Signs, forming aspects to the birth places of planets – their own as well as those of other planets – there can be no such thing as Converse Transits.
Coordinate. n
Any of two or more magnitudes that determine position. Latitude and Longitude are coordinates of a point on the Earth’s surface. v. Celestial Sphere.
Copernican System
From Copernicus, an astronomer of Prussian birth (1493-1543), who was the first to show that all the observed motions of the planets could be explained by a diurnal rotation of the Earth on its axis, and a concept of the Sun as the centre around which the Earth and the other planets revolve. He was partially anticipated by Pythagoras, who taught a heliocentric system of astronomy.
A fringe of light, or halo, surrounding the Sun; visible only during a total Eclipse.
These are planets and Signs having a kind of rotary signification: thus Aries is a co-significator of all Ascendants, because though it is not the Sign ascending it is the first Sign of the Zodiac, as the Ascendant is the First House in the world.
Cosmecology: the ecology of the cosmic
This title was suggested by Harlan T. Stetson, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for a synthesis of the contemporary sciences of astronomy, electro-physics, geology and biology. In his book “Earth, Radio and the Stars” he ventures the remark that some curse apparently inures in the word “astro-” that keeps “astrology, mother of all these sciences, in the scientific dog-house,” even though it may be the “lost key.” He cautiously suggests that we trace the correlation between changes of a cosmic origin that affect our terrestrial environment, and periods of optimism and depression in the psychology of the human race; also that the ductless glands, controlling our moods and temperaments, respond to penetrating radiations which sooner or later must be discovered.
Cosmic Conditioning
Ancient man was convinced that his destiny upon earth was ruled by the divine power that placed the stars in the heavens; that every created thing was a result of this influence; and that the Sun was the active principle of good, and the darkness of evil. The ancient concept was aptly expressed by Cowper, when he wrote:

God moves in a mysterious way,

His wonders to perform.

More recently, however, scientific research is beginning to reveal some of the ways in which Creation’s miracles evolve. We know that only a small portion of the Sun’s energy radiations are transformed into light and heat, and that other invisible hands supply to all living things the essence that imparts to the cells the ability to multiply by division, and that stimulates the endocrine glands to secrete into the blood stream the hormones to which our emotions react, and whereby each develops an individuality, in response to his own cosmic conditioning.

Thus one might say that God placed the Sun, the Moon, and the planets in the firmament, whereby every living thing would be made “after his own pattern,” and thus be distinct and different: thereby introducing into life the difficulties of mutual understanding and self-control which if mastered will produce character, and if not mastered will destroy.

We must recognize that every planetary influence which results from radiation is a reflection from the Sun. It is not a reflection of the Sun, because each reflector has a different chemical constitution which absorbs certain frequencies, and thus imparts to each reflected ray a differently altered spectrum. The Moon and the planets in the signs must be recognized as variants of the Sun influence, all aspects as blending of these variants, and all House positions as our personal relation thereto.

Furthermore, we must eliminate any consideration of the Sun’s energy radiations from our appraisal of the sign positions of the Sun, for the Sun is only the sign post whereby to determine the Earth’s position in orbit, and conditions of gravitation and momentum inherent in each arc of the orbit.

Sir Isaac Newton insisted on the solidarity of the Solar System, a concept which contemporary physicists have finally confirmed, by likening it to an enlargement of the atom. The Sun is now generally recognized as a central controlling source of positive energy comparable to the proton of positive electricity in the atom, surrounded by planets moving in orbit, comparable to electrons of negative electricity, the number of which determine the nature of the clement of which the atom was formerly believed to be the smallest component. In this concept the Earth-dweller occupies a position in one electron, some ten miles below the surface of a gaseous ocean.

Because of their differing chemical constituents, each reflecting planet absorbs varying frequencies of the Sun’s spectrum, and thus the Earth’s magnetic field is charged with a constantly changing set of frequency characteristics. The supposition that reflected rays are so weak as to be ineffectual in comparison to the direct rays of the Sun fails in the presence of such evidence as the relative minuteness of the vitamines and hormones to which extreme potency is currently ascribed. One medical textwork on hormones goes so far as to state that if one drop of the hormone contained in a certain gland in the human body were placed in the waters of Lake Eric, the drinking of a glassful of that water would produce death.

It is not unreasonable to suppose that the first day’s growth of a newly born infant, in accord with the law of adaptability to cosmic conditioning creates channels of receptivity that will circumscribe for life the individual’s capacity for absorption of the several frequencies which comprise the spectrum of cosmic stimulations. This would rule out the prenatal, since prior to birth the blood is conditioned through the maternal receptivities; and an independent existence begins only when the individual is compelled to condition his own blood.

In the light of recent discoveries in Endocrinology it is a reasonable hypothesis that cosmic energy radiation governs the growth and functioning of the Endocrine glands, and the hormones these secrete into the blood stream are the stimulators of the emotions, or are translated by the mind in terms of emotions.

The energy radiations direct from the Sun are probably responsible for the growth and functioning of one portion of the pituitary gland. Whatever gland is stimulated by a planet which aspects the Sun, will be simultaneously incited at every Sunrise and with every transit, thus accounting for the strong influence upon the native’s destiny of any planet or planets that are in close aspect to his Sun.

The food that enters the body through the stomach, and the oxygen that is extracted by the lungs, yields the material for making cells; but only the electricity absorbed by direct and reflected radiation from the Sun is able to impart to the cell the state of “livingness” that enables it to grow.

Cosmic Cross
Two planets in opposition, each squared by a third planet, resulting in what is termed a T-square or T-cross. A fourth planet, opposing the third and squaring the first two, forms a Grand Cross. The T-square is a dynamic influence; the Grand Cross tends to diffusion.
Cosmodynes (also called Astrodynes)
A technique to measure the strengths, weaknesses, harmony and discord in an astrological chart. It was originally developed in 1946 by Elbert Benjamine (aka C.C. Zain) of the Church of Light in Los Angeles and W.M.A. Drake.
Councillor Gods
A term applied, by the Chaldeans, to the three bright stars in a constellation, which served to mark the position of the ruling planet of that sign, when in the sign. Doubtless employed in an age in which there were no telescopes, to enable the observer to locate the planet when it occupied its own sign, whereby to establish the fact of its current added strength by virtue of attaining to its essential dignity (q.v.). Now ineffective, because of the Precession (qv.), and the availability of the modern Ephemerides.
Twilight. Used in Primary Directions.
Said of the inferior planets as well as of the Moon, when less than half of the disc is illuminated by the Sun.
Critical Days
Those which coincide with the formation, by the Moon, directional or transitory, of each successive semi-square or 45° aspect, to its position at birth; or at the commencement of any illness, operation, or event under Horary consideration. By noting the positions of the Moon at successive crises, aspects thereto will indicate the prognosis. Favorable crises occur at the sextiles of the Moon to its radical place; but the ephemeral aspects it forms while in these positions determine the manner in which the crises will pass, and the eventual outcome.
Crooked Signs
Taurus, Capricorn and Pisces; and should the Ascendant or Moon be in one of these, and afflicted by the malefics, the native, it is said, will be crooked and imperfect.
1. The imaginary line that separates a pair of consecutive signs in the zodiac (cusp of a sign). Many regard the cusp as a period of six days – that is 3 days before and after the time of sun sign change. Some claim that natives born during the 6-day cusp will be endowed with two sun signs, although
most astrologers agree that you cannot have two sun signs. The sun is never recognized as being in two signs simultaneously.
2. The line of division between two Houses on the horoscope (House cusp). A birth planet is stronger when it is on the cusp than when it is in the last degrees of a House. The angular cusps are doubtless the sharpest.
Of the Sun, 28 years; of the Moon, 19 years. An imaginary orb, or circle, in the heaven; marks the return of the planets to their own places; each of the planets having a cycle, or revolution, of its own.
When a faster moving planet overtakes and passes a slower moving planet, it forms a conjunction. When this recurs a second time between the same two planets there is evident a first step in a cyclic effect, wherein the second conjunction has occurred after a certain interval of time and space:
recurrence cycles of position and relation. After a certain number of recurrences the point of conjunction must eventually return to the approximate beginning point, where it completes a
first order recurrence cycle. If there is a small discrepancy between the points of beginning and ending, it is found that after a certain number of first order recurrence cycles, this discrepancy will in effect be carried all the way around the circle, and constitute a
second order recurrence cycle. A recurrence cycle of position may be taken in the Sidereal period of the planet in an hypothetical Fixed Zodiac, or in the tropical period of the planet in the moving Zodiac of Precession. Oddly enough, the values of the tropical periods of the major planets, based on the mean rate of Precession, are not usually given, even though we of the West use the Moving Zodiac of Precession in preference to a Fixed Zodiac, and despite the fact that with the outer planets the difference between the tropical and the sidereal periods becomes considerable. These values, in tropical years, are:



The hypothetical Fixed Zodiac is measured along the Invariable Plane, to which the Ecliptic has a minimum inclination of 0° and a maximum of 3°6′. Its zero point coincides with the point of beginning of the precessional movement of the Poles of the Ecliptic, but the location of this point has not been determined. Probably it should be the Nodes of intersection of the Invariable Plane with some as yet undiscovered superior orbit. However, one can assume an arbitrary point, and from that point compute both the total precession and its changing rate during a given period. There is some justification for assuming a coincidence of the moving and fixed zodiacs at 28 A.D., less a correction of 281y for lag and lead. Applying to this the true rate of precession during the intervening period yields the year 1906 as possibly the commencement of the Aquarian Age in terms of the Equinox, and 2169 in terms of the Pole.

Jupiter Cycle. The ancients noted these first and second order recurrence cycles in connection with the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, which they termed the great chronocrators, because of the way the cycles subdivided time into large units of hundreds of years, and the economic and political evolution which followed in step with these advancing cycles.

Jupiter conjoins Saturn in 19.859 years at an advance of about 123 degrees. After three conjunctions, 59.577 years, it recurs at a mean advance of 8.93° – the first order recurrence cycle of Jupiter-Saturn. With this 9-degree advance every 60 years, in 40 conjunctions the advance moves around the circle and in 794.37 years returns to within 0.93° of the starting point – the second order recurrence cycle. This 1° discrepancy would thus locate a third order recurrence cycle in 360 times 800 years, roughly speaking, a period too far in excess of recorded history to be useful as a frame of reference.

The first order recurrence cycle of Jupiter-Saturn, 59.577 years – all values are mean values, based on mean motions – is probably the 60-year cycle of which the ancients spoke so much: the period of “social lag,” or the time between the introduction of a new invention or social innovation (Uranus), and its adoption and spread on the institutional level of organized society (Jupiter-Saturn). The second order recurrence cycle of these two planets is the Great Mutation cycle which meant so much in the Mundane Astrology. of the ancients. More recent is the discovery of a cycle of this length by a modern non-astrological historical investigator, Dr. J. S. Lee, who with the aid of Lin Yutang and Dr. Hu Shih, one of China’s great scholars, studied the incidence of civil conflict in China from 1100 B.C to 1930 A.D. His graph of the amount of civil conflict in five-year intervals from 230 B.C. to 1930 A.D. reveals an 809-year cyclic interval from the Chin Dynasty of 221 B.C. to the Sui Dynasty of 589 A.D.; followed by a 779-year cyclic interval from this Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty of 1368 A.D. Averaging Bogy and 779y gives a mean value of 794y, which would end the third cycle about 2.159 A.D. In the first half of each cycle, other than for two short-lived peaks of violence the country was completely peaceful and prosperous, with unity prevailing. In the second halves there are 5 peaks of violence and no interval of sustained peace. The start of each of the three cycles was marked by great building and engineering activities: in the Chin, by the Great Wall and huge palaces; in the Sui, by the Grand Canal and huge palaces; in the Ming, by the rebuilding of the Great Wall and several systems of canals. Notable, astrologically, is the fact that the first Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in a Water Sign, Scorpio, occurred 3 years before the Chin Dynasty, 18 years before the Sui Dynasty and 3 years before the Ming Dynasty. The change of clement, in this case from Air to Water, was anciently termed the Trigonalis, and deemed to be of prime political and economic import. According to Ralph Kraum, the conjunction of 1365 occurred on November 1, at 7° Scorpio. Dr. Lee has thus confirmed, regarding the Jupiter-Saturn rhythm, that when the conjunctions are in Water and Fire, all is well; while in Earth and Air’ all is not so well. Thus it can be inferred that in the first half, Jupiter predominates; and in the second half, Saturn. This indicates that the astrological study of the broader influences which affect the rise and fall of civilization is best approached through recurrence cycles of position and relation of the major planets.

Pluto Cycles. The application of Bode’s Law roughly coincides with the distances of the planets from the Sun; except in the case of Neptune, where it breaks down entirely. However, D. E. Richardson, of the Armour Research Institute, as noted in Popular Astronomy for January 1945, has discovered a formula which accurately yields the planetary distances. The only discrepancy of over 0.1 per cent between distance values computed from this formula, and the observed values, occurs in the case of Pluto. Furthermore, his formula confirms what Wilson found from a study of medieval records as to the knowledge of the ancients, viz., that there are 13 orbits in the Solar System: one within the orbit of Mercury (Vulcan), and two beyond the orbit of, Pluto. According to this formula the planet next beyond Pluto should have a mean distance of 74.2 astronomical units, and a sidereal period of 640y; the outermost planet, 137.4 A.U., and 1608y. The mean values in tropical years would then be 625y and 1515y.

Recent discoveries by certain outstanding non-astrological investigators are interesting, even if as yet speculative, in the fact that they check with the periods of the two planets which there is some reason to believe lie beyond the orbit of Pluto. Studies of the Culture Cycle, by Jean Bradford, and by Petry, the great Egyptologist, indicate a period of about 1500 years as the duration of a Culture: subdivided into 6 culture — phases of about 250 years each, in each of which certain psychologically different basic components receive special emphasis. She has correlated recognizable physiological differences with endocrine imbalance, based on the work of Dr. Berman, recognized endocrinologist, revealing wherein both the psychological and the physiological characteristics of a culture-phase display a different sense of Space, dimensional in nature.

The work of Dr. Ellsworth Huntingdon of Yale, outstanding geographer, climatologist and cyclologist, indicates a cycle of about 640 years in the migrations of peoples.

Clearly these suggest a Pluto cycle, of a sidereal period of 247.7 years, or 245 1/3 tropical years, the interpretations of which agree with certain conclusions reached by Dane Rudhyar, astrological student of cultures and civilizations, concerning the Pluto period and its correlation with the style of a period. The sidereal period of the planet next beyond Pluto correlates to the Migration cycle of Dr. Huntingdon. The 1500-Year Culture period of Bradford and Petry correlates to the tropical period of the hypothetical outermost planet. Since in all Culture-cycles, Mrs. Bradford finds that changes of phase occur in years divisible by 250, it is notable that close to these dates Pluto is at its perihelion (13°+) – its nearest point to the Sun. Its next perihelion passage will be in 198g, 11 years before her date. The first perihelion passage of this epoch was 8 A.D., 8 years after her date. This is highly significant, since Pluto is nearer to the Sun than Neptune during nearly 5 years before and after its perihelion pas- sages. Thus, as Rudhyar has suggested, Pluto “fertilizes” Neptune once in each cycle by crossing within its orbit. It is also of interest to note that Neptune’s aphelion nearly coincides with Pluto’s perihelion. Thus of all planetary orbits theirs are the most singularly related.

Neptune Cycle. We have found no study which has discovered Neptune’s recurrence period of 164 years. In any case this would be rendered difficult by the fact that 3 cycles of Neptune are nearly equal to 2 cycles of Pluto. Their recurrence of
relation, a cycle of aspect that is known as the synodic cycle, has a mean value of 492 1/3 years, although now and for a long time to come it is nearer 493½ years. It also develops that the Culture-phases alternate – one centripetal, and next centrifugal – yielding a double cycle of about 500 years: probably the Neptune-Pluto cycle, wherein every 247 years they are alternately in conjunction or opposition. From this we deduce that the outer planets exert a powerful influence on Civilization. According to the analyses of Mrs. Bradford, the first 1500 years of each Culture-Cycle is predominantly extrovert; the next 1500 years, predominantly introvert: a double cycle of a value of roughly 3,000 years. This can be related to the 3,100-year period of 3 conjunctions of the two outermost planets, in which time they return not only to the same relation, but also to nearly the same position in the Zodiac. Even the single Neptune-Pluto cycle of nearly 500 years finds Neptune and Pluto in nearly the same position.

Since five revolutions of Pluto nearly equal two revolutions of the planet next beyond Pluto, the difference (5 – 2 = 3) gives the number of conjunctions they will make in their cycle of 1,230 years. Mrs. Bradford finds that the first 4 of the 6 phases of a single Culture cycle, or 1,000 years, develop the four basic psychological elements of human nature (Jung): the emotional; imaginative (also called the intuitive); rational (intellectual); and sensate (sensory)-in that order. During the fifth phase the preceding four are integrated, the quintessence (quintus, the fifth) of the experience of the Culture is distilled, developing what we term a complete Civilization. Politically this may be an Imperium or Empire; such as the Roman Empire; which was the fifth, and later the sixth phase, of the Grecian Culture. As Mrs. Bradford’s five phases equal 1,250 years, approximately the period of Pluto’s position and relation recurrence with the planet just beyond it, it appears to indicate that her study is actually an observation of the effects of the cycles of the four outermost planets – even though she herself is not an astrologer. According to her deductions the Atlantic Culture of Northern Europe and North America is now about to leave its fourth phase to pass into the fifth; the second or introvertive half of the double Culture-Period of the Mediterranean Culture (the Greco-Roman in the extrovert cycle, and the Catholic and Latin Europe in the introvertive) should end its final phase this Century; and the North Asian or Slavic Culture, which includes most of Russia, is ending the final phase of its extrovert cycle and about to pass into its introvert cycle. This final phase is a barbaric period of great physical vitality, and its “conversion” into the first phase of the introvert Culture period is always concurrent with a vital and major religious development. This suggests that the next religious renascence, in the latter part of this century, will be an especially vital one for the Slavic peoples.

The intimacy of the relationship of the orbits of Neptune and Pluto can be seen in this comparison:

neptune: 163.74 ty. x 3 revolutions = 491.22 ty.
pluto: 245.33 ty. x 2 revolutions = 490.66 ty.
synodic cycle, mean value: 492.33 y.


Uranus Cycle. The researches of modern astrologers indicate the renewing and revolutionary character of the Uranus period of 83¾ tropical years, and the Neptune period of 163¾ tropical years; and confirm the long-established significance of the Saturn period of 29½ years, and the Jupiter period of 11 6/7 years. But it is from a consideration of the synodic periods and the cycle of recurrent aspects between two of them, that, interesting conclusions can be deduced as to their sociological significance. Thus the Uranus-Neptune first order recurrence period is that of I conjunction – 171.403 years. In the past 2,500 years the effect of the Uranus eccentricity has reduced this to an average value of some 171.0 years. This is especially significant when compared to a cycle in the history of Civilization, found by Dr. Raymond F. Wheeler, of the University of Kansas, who also is not an astrologer and is therefore free of any bias in favor of a cycle of a particular astronomical length. He gives its length as 170 years, only 0.6 per cent less than that of the Uranus-Neptune cycle. He finds that it marks broad changes in the pattern of society, and is accompanied by social upheavals – typical of all Uranian influences. He attributes the cycle to climatic changes, but at least one investigator of climatic cycles finds no confirming evidence in a climatic cycle of that duration.

Further, regarding the second order recurrence cycles of Uranus-Neptune in the Fixed and Moving Zodiacs, after 21 conjunctions they return to a point about 6° short of their initial place in the Zodiac of Precession. The fascinating thing is that this takes place in 3,599.46 years – the 3,600-year period which the ancient Chaldees referred to as the real and original Saros cycle. Thus it can be estab- lished that in 7,209y, only ten years after the next Uranus-Neptune recurrence in 7,199y, there will be a Jupiter-Saturn recurrence. Therefore the double Saros is a compound recurrence cycle of the four innermost major planets. If we divide this into 12 subperiods we find a significant change of aspect pattern every 600 years: Jupiter and Neptune advancing 8, Saturn 5, and Uranus 2 Signs – which 600-year period is the equally famous Naros cycle of the Chaldees. In addition, the Sun, Moon and Mars recur in the same position and relationship at the end of 6 Centuries. Therefore since Jupiter-Neptune remain in the same aspect, both advanced 240° in the Naros period, one may consider this a Jupiter-Neptune dominated cycle, that has to do not with political economy (Saturn-Uranus) but with religion and philosophy. Neptune indicates the mystical aspect: the revelation of a higher universal and mystical reality through the medium of some great spiritual teacher. Jupiter represents this development on the level of social institutions as an organized religion and ritual, which becomes widespread-the expansiveness of Jupiter. These Naros milestones are marked by the following historical dates:

576b.c., the birth of buddha (buddhism), mahavira (jainism), pythagoras, and the activity of lao-tze (taoism).
15a.d., the mission of christ (christianity).
625the hegira of mohammed (mohammedanism).
1225st. francis (vital for catholicism).
1825birth of the bab and baha’ullah (co-founders of bahaism) and of mary baker eddy (christian science).


Observe that in each case there is the factor of revelation through a specific Teacher, and the expansion of the resultant religion to a considerable number of followers. In tile case of Confucius, the element of revelation thus appears to have been absent.

The recurrent Uranus-Neptune conjunctions in the Fixed Zodiac are also of vital significance: a cycle of 25 in 4,285.1 years. This is almost exactly one-sixth of a Precessional cycle, just as the 600-year Naros is one-sixth of the 3,600-year “Saros” cycle; and both are of vital spiritual import. This means that the start of each Precessional Age, one-twelfth of the complete cycle of Precession, is alternately marked by a conjunction or opposition between these two planets, all occurring at almost the same place in the Fixed Zodiac!

Actually the Mean Precession is 25,694.8 years. Six recurrence cycles of Uranus-Neptune in the Fixed Zodiac, or seven in the Moving Zodiac, equal 25,710.48 years, at an advance of 7½°; and 32 recurrence cycles of Jupiter-Saturn in the Moving Zodiac equal 25,717.8 years, at an advance of 15°. Therefore the period of Precession is a compound recurrence cycle of the four innermost major planets, in both the Fixed and the Moving Zodiacs: hence its great importance. If we divide the Precession by 12, as previously we divided the 7,200-year original Saros cycle by 12, we obtain the basic 2,143-year rhythm which marks off the Ages; the Pisces or the Aquarian. At the end of one such Age, Neptune is in the same place in the Fixed Zodiac; at the end of two, Neptune and Uranus are at the same place; at the end of three, Neptune and Jupiter are at the same place; at the end of four, Neptune, Uranus and Saturn are at the same place; but the end of 12 brings them all back at the same time and place. Clearly then, one must consider, in the order of their relative importance: first Neptune, then Uranus, Jupiter, and finally Saturn. Once again the universalism and mysticism of Neptune turn up in the association of religions with each Precessional Age; but also Uranus as the renewer and changer.

Saturn Cycles. The remaining synodic cycle of major planets in adjacent orbits is that of Saturn-Uranus. Two conjunctions, 90.72 years, complete a first order recurrence cycle, in which time they have advanced 30 degrees and 1½ minutes of arc in the Zodiac of Precession. The period from a conjunction to an opposition, or the reverse, of Jupiter and Saturn is 9.93 years; of Saturn and Uranus, 22.68 years. The 9.93 year period has been identified as a component in the Sunspot cycle, and by Edgar Lawrence Smith in the Business cycle. The 22.68 year period has been identified by Dr. Abbott as the basic period of variation in the Solar constant — radiation: given by him as 22.3 years. It has also been found to be a Weather cycle, as has one-third of it; twice, and four times — which coincides with the first order recurrence cycle of Saturn-Uranus. Thus the correlations of the three inner major planets appear to deal with Weather, Economics and Politics; i.e., the more concrete phases of human life and environment.

The significance of the Saturn-Uranus cycle for the political economy appears clear, especially at and near their cyclic oppositions. The opposition of 1692 Was immediately preceded by the first demo- cratic revolution: Britain’s Glorious Revolution of 1688 and 1689. The next opposition, of about 1736, was marked by the War of the Polish Succession. The opposition of 1783 followed the American Revolution. (Uranus was discovered when opposition to Saturn, in 1781.) The opposition of 1829 was followed by revolutionary upheavals which started in France and spread throughout Europe in 1830. The opposition of 1874 followed the first Communist revolu- tion, the Paris Commune of 1871. The opposition of 1919 followed the Russian Revolution of 1917. The next opposition will come in 1965.

Dr. Lee found that 540 Years after the start of each Chinese Cycle the country became split between North and South, and the capital was shifted from North to South. Two of his cycle dates are 3 years later than the Jupiter-Saturn Mutation conjunctions, hence the split occurs 543 years after the Mutations. The second order recurrence cycle for Saturn-Uranus is 1,088.72 years, or 24 conjunctions. Half of this ‘s 544.36 years. At the end of 544 1/3 years there has been a conjunction in each of the 12 Signs and Saturn-Uranus are exactly 180¼º from their initial position: thus the shift of 180° suggests the “split” of China. Adding 544 1/3 to the conjunction of 1365 gives us 1919; but actually, because of the eccentricities of the Saturn-Uranus orbits, they did not reach the oppositions to the places they occupied at the beginning of the cycle, until late 1911 or early 1912, which marked the Revolution of October 10, 1911 that brought into being the Republic and caused the capital to be shifted from Peking south to Nanking, and later led to the split between the Communist North and the Kuomintang South. In this, Dr. Lee appears to have identified the significance of the second order cycles of Jupiter-Saturn-Uranus; Mrs. Bradford, to have identified the meaning of the first order cycles of Neptune-Pluto and the two trans-Pluto planets postulated by the Richardson formula; and Professor Wheeler to have identified the importance of the first order Uranus-Neptune cycle. It should be mentioned as the best work on the Uranus-Neptune cycle by an astrologer, Margaret Morrell under “Research” in American Astrology Magazine, in April, May and June of 1939.

A study of the vast and vital subject of planetary cycles thus illuminates other cycles, such as the Naros and the Precessional Ages, the existence of which have been long traditional but whose full meanings have not always been clear. The prime importance of these two cycles is in the fact that they involve the two planets of the “creative minority”: the bearers of Culture (Uranus-Neptune), of “institutional society,” and of the “established and conventional” (Jupiter-Saturn). As a result, in both cases we have the combination and interaction of the two different psycho-social levels which represent the process of “civilization”: the creative vs. the practical. The most perfect illustration of this was the start of the Mission of Jesus at the age of 30, in 25 A.D.)., at the Full Moon of April 1 of that year, in Libra opposing the Sun in Aries, Saturn with the Sun and Jupiter with the Moon, close to the Equinox, the intersection of the Equator and Ecliptic, hence on the same level. Squaring this was Neptune in Capricorn opposing Uranus in Cancer, near the line of intersection of the Invariable Plane and the Ecliptic, the other and universal level of Christ. Thus one can consider the Crucifixion to be the archetypal pattern of the conflict of the universal, intangible and creative against the local, institutional and concrete. Organized society always denies and persecutes its creative redeemers, whether they be artists, true statesmen, inventors or teachers.

At the 25 A.D. grand cross, Mars conjoined the Sun and opposed the Moon, indicating the Naros cycle, a recurrence cycle of the Sun, Moon and Mars. Only once in 180,000 years, a sub-race in Theosophy, does a Naros date coincide with the start of a cycle of Precession of the Pole, as it did in 25 A.D. Count back one Naros cycle to Buddah, and you find a different and equally rare configuration: for in the 570s (577 to 574 B.C.) the three “creative” planets – Uranus, Neptune and Pluto – were in a close conjunction, which occurs once in about 120,000 years. The fact that this fell in Taurus is striking, since tradition states that Gautama Buddha was born, was illumined under the Bo tree, and died, in each case at a Full Moon in May – with the Sun in Taurus. Thus the advent of Buddha correlated to the other great celestial event in the recent millennial history of Man, and as a result was followed by the most intellectually and spiritually creative Century in the recorded history of Civilization – 575 B.C. to 475 B.C. Truly a study of planetary cycles casts much light on the evolution of Society. v. Invariable Plane. — CHARLES A. JAYNE, JR.

These Solar recurrence periods with respect to the Equinox assume a mean rate of precession of 25,694.8y, as given by Stockwell: all the planets moving at mean motion. Variations will result in consequience of: (a) eccentricities and obliquities of planetary orbits; (b) the distorting effect, in a geocentric frame of reference, of the Earth’s motion and position; (c) variation in the motion of the Equinox — 0° Aries; and (d) slight variations due to periodic perturbations. The greatest variations will occur in the Uranus-Pluto first and second order recurrence cycles in the moving zodiac.

The synodic period of a recurrence cycle is the time between two successive conjunctions of the same two planets. The Remainder indicates the number of degrees in advance at which the second conjunction takes place. A first order recurrence cycle is, in effect, a series of a given number of conjunctions, at the end of which a conjunction recurs on approximately the same degree as at the beginning of the cycle. The remainder of a first order cycle then becomes the unit of a second order cycle, which after a given number of recurrences is repeated still more exactly upon the degree at which it commenced its second order cycle.

(a) After 12 conjunctions, there is a separation of 180.25°.

v. Cycles – Tabulated Data


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